Friday, July 7, 2017

ISTANBUL RAILWAY MUSEUM

Sirkeci, Fatih - Istanbul - Turkey

GPS : 41°00'54.0"N 28°58'34.0"E / 41.015000, 28.976111

Istanbul Railway Museum photo railway_museum108.jpg

PHOTOGRAPHS ALBUM

Istanbul Railway Museum is opened on 23th September 2005. A small museum can ve visited inside Sirkeci station. This is only one room, whose entrace is on the main platform. Three hundred cultural objects are being exhibited in the museum. A collection of object and souvenir is on displays: old pictures, tools, medals, dinning care silverware... The most interresting item is a front end from a E8000. Its displays the cab with all its equipement.

In the museum, which is housed in the 1888-built and 1890-opened railway terminal, around 300 historical items are on display. The exhibits of the museum covering an area of 145 m2 (1,560 sq ft) are parts of the trains and the railway stations, photographs as well as related documents. A few to name are: furniture and silver services used in dining cars, station office equipment, driver cab of an electric suburban train, manufacturer plates of some historic TCDD rolling stock, warning plates, station's clock and bell.

HISTORY OF SİRKECİ (ORIENT) STATION

With a great ceremony the foundation Stone of the Sirkeci Main Station- Gate of Istanbul to Europe - was laid on February 11th, 1888. The architect of this magnificent station building, opened for service on November 3 rd 1890, was the German architect and engineer A. Jasmund. Jasmund, who graduated from the University of Berlin came to Istanbul in order to make investigations on the oriental architecture, gained the trust of Sultan Abdülhamid II and became his advisory architect.

During the planning of the station building, one thing had been of utmost importance to Jasmund. Istanbul is the point where the West ends and the East begins. In other words, it is he point where East and West meets. Therefore the building had to be applied in an oriental style into life, and regional and national style shapes had to be used. In order to reflect this style, bands of bricks were used at facades.

Windows with peak arcs and in the middle a wide entrance door, that reminded to the stone portals of the Selçuklu epoch - were built. The stained - glasses completed this style. The fundament of the building was consisted of granite, the facedes of marble and Stones that had been brought from Marseilles, Arden. In the waiting halls, large tile stoves produced in Austria were installed. The lightning of the building was provided by 300 gas lanterns placed at different locations.

The Sirkeci Station, which is the last stop of Orient Express, was magnificent at the time it was build. The sea was reaching to the building foot and terraces lead down to the sea. On both sides of the middle entrance there were turret clocks, three big restaurants, a large beer-garden and an outdoor restaurant behind the station. The big restaurant in the Station was at the turret clocks side. A long marble stairway leads to the restaurant.

When the railway started to be built in Yedikule and reached the point of Yenikapı disputes came up regarding that the line should lead to Sarayburnu through the garden of Topkapı Palace. This dispute was put to an end by Sultan Abdülaziz who allowed to lay the rails through the garden of the Palace.

The building permission of 337 km long part within the national borders of the total 200 km long Orient Railway between Istanbul-Edirne and Kırklareli-Alpullu was given to Baron Hirch in 1869, was completed in 1888, put into operation and this Project connected Istanbul to European railways.

LOCATION SATELLITE MAP



WEB SITE : Turkish State Railways Museum

MORE INFO & CONTACT
Phone : +90 212 520 6575 /  +90 212 527 1201 / +90 444 8233

These scripts and photographs are registered under © Copyright 2017, respected writers and photographers from the internet. All Rights Reserved.

SANTRALISTANBUL ENERGY MUSEUM

Silahtarağa, Eyüp - Istanbul - Turkey

GPS : 41°03'59.0"N 28°56'45.0"E / 41.066389, 28.945833

 photo santralistanbul116.jpg

PHOTOGRAPHS ALBUM

SİLAHTARAĞA POWER PLANT

The Silahtarağa Power Station (Turkish: Silahtarağa Elektrik Santralı) was a coal-fired thermal power station located in Istanbul, Turkey. Ottoman Empire's first power plant, it served from 1914 to 1983.

The Silahtarağa Power Plant was the Ottoman Empire’s first urban-scale electrical power plant. Built at the mouth of the Kağıthane and Alibeyköy rivers at the tail-end of the Golden Horn, the power plant was Istanbul’s sole electricity provider from 1914 to 1952. Silahtarağa’s generating capacity reached a peak of 120,000 kilowatts in 1956, after which it gradually declined until the plant was decommissioned on 18 March 1983.

1910 : Austro-Hungarian company Ganz wins the bid opened for the installation of a power station in İstanbul. Establishing the Ottoman Electric Company Inc., Ganz begins working.
1914 : The Silahtarağa Power Plant starts running. Electricity is first supplied to the tramway system and later to the European side of the city.
1926 : Electricity is supplied to the Anatolian side with the submarine cable installed between Arnavutköy and Vaniköy.
1937 : The state buys the Electric Company and puts it under the management of the İstanbul Electricity, Tramway and Tunnel (İETT) Enterprises General Directorate. Until 1952, Silahtarağa remains the sole electricity provider of the city.
1970 : The Silahtarağa Power Plant is handed over to the Turkish Electrical Authority (TEK).
1983 : Having completed its economic life, the Silahtarağa Power Plant terminates production.
2004 : Work for the preservation and transformation of the Silahtarağa Power Plant into santralistanbul starts
2007 : Santralİstanbul, which is formed by preservation and reservation of Silahtarağa Power Plant, starts to serve as a centre for education, culture and arts.

The power plant was projected as being the first one in the Ottoman Empire apart from a small hydroelectric power station, which went into service 1902 in Tarsus, Anatolia. The Budapest based Austria-Hungarian Ganz Electric Company was selected to built the power station. It founded in 1910 the Ottoman Electric Company in cooperation with two foreign banks, Banque de Bruxelles and Banque Generale de Credit Hangrois. The company obtained a concession for 50 years, and built a coal-fired thermal power plant in Silahtarağa neighborhood in Eyüp at the upper end of Golden Horn.

The power plant started its service on February 11, 1914, just before the outbreak of World War I, supplying power to tram net and three days later to the sultan's palace and some households in three different corners of the city as well.

The foreign-owned company was nationalized in 1937 and turned over on July 1, 1938 to the Municipality of Istanbul for its management by the Electricity, Tunnel and Tram Company of Istanbul (IETT). Silahtarağa power station was the lone electric supplier in Istanbul until 1950s. In 1952, the station was linked to the newly created interconnect electric system of Turkey. It was transferred to Etibank in 1962 and 1963. In 1970, the power station was turned over to the Turkish Electric Institution (TEK).

Silahtarağa power station had initially 3 units of 6 MW power each. The capacity was later increased to a total power of 80 MW. On March 13, 1983, Silahtarağa power station was shut down due to reaching the end of its economic service life. It is Turkey's first power plant closed. The site stood dormant since then. In 1991, Silahtarağa power plant was listed under the cultural and natural objects in Istanbul to be protected.

ENERGY MUSEUM

In 2002, a redevelopment plan was worked out by Oğuz Özerden, a young businessman and founder of Istanbul Bilgi University. The project foresaw the conversion of the former plant site into a university campus with creation of a modern art museum and an energy museum particularly. Despite a rivaling project of the Chamber of Electrical Engineers' Istanbul branch in cooperation with Istanbul Technical University, Bilgi University's project was approved by the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, and could be realized in three years with financial support of some leading Turkish companies.

The Silahtarağa Power Plant sprawled over a 118,000 m2 site comprising engine rooms with turbine generators, boiler rooms, management buildings, workers’ quarters and vast coal yards. It stands today as one of Turkey’s top industrial heritage sites. Converting the Silahtarağa Power Plant into Santralİstanbul was a process that involved retaining as many of the original elements as possible. Work began in May 2004 and was completed in September 2007.

The site was converted into a university campus for the Istanbul Bilgi University with two museums and several facilities for different purposes. It is renamed SantralIstanbul and reopened in 2007. The complex was renamed SantralIstanbul after the Turkish language word "Santral" for power station, and opened officially on September 8, 2007. It comprises a modern art museum, an energy museum, a public library, an amphitheater and several other facilities for arts, cultural, educational and social purposes.

The SantralIstanbul (Turkish: Santralİstanbul), opened in 2007, is an arts and cultural complex located at the upper end of Golden Horn in the Eyüp district of Istanbul, Turkey. The center, consisting of a modern art museum, an energy museum, an amphitheater, concert halls and a public library, is situated within the Silahtarağa campus of Istanbul Bilgi University that was formerly the first power station of the Ottoman Empire.

Important technical remains of the former power station are preserved and can be seen in the Energy museum, which was designed by architect Han Tümertekin. Situated in the turbine hall having three generator groups, the museum is the summary of the steam turbines, the electrical generators and the equipment of the power plant on the show in almost original conditions.

The Silahtarağa Power Plant's first two engine rooms, built in 1913 and 1921 respectively, were reinforced and converted into the santralistanbul Museum of Energy, retaining as many original elements as possible. The first step in the power plant’s conversion to Museum of Energy was to halt the corrosion of the turbine generators and other machinery which had set in as a result of disuse since the plant’s decommissioning in 1983.

Teams of experts moved in to clean up the machinery and apply a protective anti-corrosion sealant. Thereafter, the number one turbine generator group was restored to its original appearance of 1931. Meanwhile, the number three turbine generator group, which had been dismantled when production stopped at the plant, was preserved exactly as left.

In the Museum of Energy's number one and two Engine Rooms, visitors currently have the chance to see the AEG, Brown Boveri, Siemens and Thomson Houston made turbine generator groups. These were the key components of electricity generation at the Silahtarağa Power Plant and reflect the advanced technology of the age.

The Control Room, which oversaw the generation of electricity and its transmission to different districts around Istanbul, has been preserved intact, complete with elaborate control devices and equipment. Throughout the long and painstaking preservation process, the exact position of missing or damaged items was marked and surviving items cleaned and sealed against corrosion.

The ground floor of the Museum of Energy is given over to the Energy Play Zone, a fun-meets-science space featuring 22 interactive exhibits. It’s here that visitors get to generate electricity themselves, to morph into batteries, make magnetic sculptures, struggle with a stubborn suitcase, touch thousands of volts without thinking twice and dabble in many more scientific experiments. Besides, most of the panels, seminars and talks realized within santralistanbul since its foundation, were held at the Cinema/Seminar Room situated on the ground floor of the Museum of Energy.

Another not-to-be-missed Museum of Energy installation comes in the form of the Reactable, a revolutionary new electronic musical instrument using an illuminated round table-top interface. To ‘play’ the instrument, the musician manipulates translucent objects over the interface, at which point the objects begin interacting.

The Reactable was originally displayed as an exhibit in Uncharted, a temporary show heldat the santralistanbul Main Gallery. In August 2009, after the show ended, it was gifted to the Museum of Energy as a permanent exhibit. The internationally award-winning instrument was used on stage by Björk during her Volta world tour.

LOCATION SATELLITE MAP



WEB SITE : Santralistanbul Energy Museum

MORE INFO & CONTACT
Tel : +90 212 311 7878
E-Mail : muze@santralistanbul.org

These scripts and photographs are registered under © Copyright 2017, respected writers and photographers from the internet. All Rights Reserved.

TANZİMAT (PERIOD OR REFORMS) MUSEUM

Gülhane Park, Fatih - Istanbul - Turkey

GPS : 41°00'50.0"N 28°58'46.7"E / 41.013889, 28.979639

Tanzimat (Period Of Reforms) Museum photo tanzimat_museum102.jpg

PHOTOGRAPHS ALBUM

Tanzimat Museum is placed in the Gülhane Park managed to stay green in the areas of Istanbul. Tanzimat Museum contains the artifacts of Tanzimat period which corresponds to the time of collapse of the Ottoman Empire. This museum is dedicated to the display of documents and objects dating from the Tanzimat period of reform and Westernization between the years 1839-1876.

Tanzimat Museum firstly was established in a place called as “Linden Pavilion” in 1952. After a while, Linden Pavilion was taken back to the institution “National Palaces”, so Tanzimat Museum was closed. Then in 1969, the museum met with visitors again in a building of Beşiktaş District which called as “Tent Pavilion” within the boundaries of Star Park. In 1970, the museum was transferred to a building in Gülhane Park which was built for “Tanzimat Museum”. The museum has served since 1983.

The museum displays 19th century documents and objects belonging to the Ottoman Tanzimat period and the 1839 Tanzimat Firman document which is one of the most significant in paving the way to the westernisation of the Ottoman Empire.

Also on display are signed photographs with engravings and paintings and personal objects belonging to Mustafa Reşid Paşa, Sadık Muhtar Bey and Ziya Paşa all of whom were leading statesmen during this reform movement.

Tanzimat Museum is also home to belongings of many statesmen such as uniforms, apparel from glassware and personal items. All works related to Tanzimat Period are acclaimed by local and foreign tourists who visit the museum. Also newspapers and magazines, belong to time of reading the Tanzimat Edict, are exhibited in the museum. In addition, lots of works are exhibited such as the first Ottoman Population Paper published in 1856, the diary of Namık Kemal.

LOCATION SATELLITE MAP



WEB SITE : İstanbul Metropolitan Municipality

MORE INFO & CONTACT
Tel : +90 212 512 6384
E-Mail : kutuphanemuzeler@ibb.gov.tr

These scripts and photographs are registered under © Copyright 2017, respected writers and photographers from the internet. All Rights Reserved.

Thursday, July 6, 2017

CARICATURE AND HUMOR ARTS MUSEUM

Tepebaşı, Beyoğlu - Istanbul - Turkey

GPS : 41°01'54.4"N 28°58'21.6"E / 41.031789, 28.972659

Caricature And Humor Arts Museum photo caricature_museum103.jpg

PHOTOGRAPHS ALBUM

Caricature And Humour Arts Museum was opened in 1975 in Tepebaşı by the Istanbul Municipality through the efforts of the Caricaturists Association, then temporarily closed down in 1980 as the building where it was housed was torn down and later re-opened in its new site in Fatih district.

The Gazanfer Ağa complex, which consists of an Ottoman medrese, a shrine and a fountain in Saraçhanebaşı, was restored for use as the new structure. Re-opened in 1989, the museum contains a rich collection of satirical works, written or drawn, and the exhibits are frequently changed.

The collection of the museum features various documents and authentic works, selections from caricature and  humor periodicals from Turkey and the world.

LOCATION SATELLITE MAP



WEB SITE : Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality

MORE INFO & CONTACT
Tel : +90 212 256 4258
E-Mail : kutuphanemuzeler@ibb.gov.tr

These scripts and photographs are registered under © Copyright 2017, respected writers and photographers from the internet. All Rights Reserved.

RAHMI M. KOÇ INDUSTRIAL MUSEUM / TECHNOLOGY

Hasköy - Istanbul - Turkey

GPS : 41°02'30.0"N 28°56'55.0"E 8 41.041667, 28.948611

RMK Industrial Museum / Vehicles photo rmk_museum119.jpg

PHOTOGRAPHS ALBUM

The Rahmi M. Koç Industrial Museum is fortunate to be housed in two splendid, historical building complexes on the shores of the Golden Horn, at the heart of old Istanbul. These buildings are themselves icons of industrial archaeology, which makes it all the more appropriate that they now host our collection of industrial exhibits. The museum now has more than 11,000 square meters of galleries.

The Lengerhane
Now a Class II historical monument, this former Ottoman Navy anchor foundry was constructed on the 12th Century foundations of a Byzantine building during the reign of Sultan Ahmet III. (By the way, "lenger" means "anchor and chain", and "hane" means "house"). The building was subsequently restored in the reign of Sultan Selim III (1789 - 1807), before passing into the ownership of Ministry of Finance and finally, in the Republican era, the Turkish State Monopolies' Cibali Tobacco factory.

The Koç Foundation bought the first museum building in 1991, which was left derelict and seriously damaged after a roof fire in 1984 and the building was effectively abandoned until it was purchased by the Rahmi M Koç Museum and Culture Foundation in 1991.

The Hasköy Dockyard
This historic dockyard was founded in 1861 by the former Ottoman Maritime Company (Şirket-i Hayriye) for the maintenance and repair of its own ships. The yard initially comprised just two workshop buildings, and was gradually extended as needs and opportunities arose. A 45 m long cradle, powered by a steam capstan was constructed in 1884: later, in 1910, a second cradle was added and the capstan converted to electric power.

Some of the earliest ferry boats were constructed here, including public favourites such as the Kocataş and Sarıyer vessels laid down in 1938 and in service for nearly half a century. The dockyard went through many changes of State Ownership before ending up under the control of the Ministry of Communications In 1984. It was finally purchased by the Rahmi M Koç Museum and Culture Foundation in 1996.

The Restorations
The Rahmi M Koç Museum was founded in the Lengerhane building. The Lengerhane itself had been purchased in 1991 and was the subject of a thorough and sympathetic restoration by the firm of Garanti Koza. The original building was supplemented by an underground gallery reached by a long glazed ramp, and finally opened in December 1994. The first phase of the Museum rapidly outgrew itself, and in 1996 the Hasköy Dockyard, then just a ruin on the shores of the Golden Horn opposite the Lengerhane, was purchased. 14 derelict buildings plus the historic ship cradle and lathes were faithfully restored to their original condition, and the second phase opened to the public in July 2001.

The two buildings are on the same road, on opposite sides: the dockyard part of the complex is on the shores of the Golden Horn. A glass-sided ramp leads down to the basement exhibition area of the Lengerhane.

This exhibition section is divided into several subject, where you can enjoy a glimpse of the thousands of wonderful objects in our collection. On this page we show a few of the museum's favourites, arranged in the order in which they would be visited.

COMMUNICATIONS
Few aspects of modern life have advanced so dramatically, nor changed our lives so completely, as that of communications. Just about 120 years ago, the only way to contact someone abroad was by letter, taking weeks for a reply. Now we can talk directly from virtually anywhere to anywhere via a mobile phone. This revolution started with the telegraph, which could transmit on-off signals in code: voice communication was not possible until the advent of the telephone in 1873. The next major advance was wireless, invented by Marconi in 1896. Meanwhile, visual imaging proceeded in two parallel paths - the chemical one for normal cameras and films, and the digital one for television and the internet.

Rotary Dial Telephone
Before the days of buttons, the classic rotary dial strongly influenced the look of telephones. This much-traveled example was built in Sweden in 1920 by Ericsson, and then exported to Turkey. It was purchased in Istanbul and restored back in Sweden with the assistance of the Turkish Ambassador there.

Phonograph
The second Edison object in our collections is this cylinder phonograph, where the sound was recorded on a wax cylinder rather than a shellac disc. It was manufactured in 1903 by the Edison Company in America, and bears the serial number 5290773.

Gramophone
A 1930 HMV Model 21 Gramophone, made in England by The Gramophone Company, owner of the His Master’s Voice trademark. Gramophone needles of several brands like Dog and Baby, Solo, D.F. Tayler are being exhibited alongside this Gramophone.

J. Lancaster & Son Camera
Plate camera made in 1885 by J. Lancaster & Son, Birmingham, England and used with glass negatives.

Thomas Edison Patent Model
One of the most significant items in the collection is this 22nd Februrary 1876 patent model by Thomas Edison, describing a method of improving the telegraph system so that it could send alphabetic letters instead of symbols. Edison was one of the most prolific and significant inventors of all time, and his patent models are much sought after by museums and collectors alike.

Valve Amplifier
An unusual separate amplifier form an age when sound systems were usually all in one box. Built in about 1936 by Western Electric, USA, it boasts two enormous 'tubes', otherwise known as thermionic valves. Unlike today's transistors, these gave off enormous amounts of heat (and light); hence the large holes in the case.

Zoetrope
The Zoetrope was invented in 1835 by Englishman William Horner and was one of the many precursors of the modern cine-projector, and operated on the same principle of presenting a rapid succession of different pictures to the eye - in this case, when the drum rotated and its interior is viewed through the vertical slots.

ENGINEERING
When the young James Watt tried to hold down the lid of a boiling kettle, he little realised what a revolution he was starting. Before steam, the world relied on human, animal, wind or water power. The earliest steam engines were massive and stationary: they powered pumping stations and entire factories, via belt drives. Later, they became portable, and were eventually replaced by more convenient and economical gas, petrol, or diesel power plants. The museum has a wide selection of engineering exhibits, from delicate working models to a massive, 20' high triple expansion marine steam engine.

Steam Engine from "SS Kalendar"
A fine triple-expansion steam engine from the Bosphorus ferry boat Kalender, manufactured in by Şirket-i Hayriye 1911 in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England, by the Wallsend Slipway and Engineering Company.  The Kalender had two main engines, and this was the starboard one. This fine triple expansion steam engine  was in use from 1911 until the mid-1980s.

Olive Oil Factory
A lovingly recreated and authentic industrial scene, incorporating all the elements of an actual olive oil factory from Bademli on the Aegean Coast. See the original steam engine turning and operating the drive belts and millstones. Other items include the original crushed olive presses and boiler front, plus many other historical details.

Portable Stationary Engine
Manufactured in 1872 at the Britannia Iron Works by William Marshall & Co. of Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, England. Marshall built similar steam engines of 2 - 12 hp capacity, before moving into the agricultural tractor business, including some unique tracked models. The firm was in existence from 1848 to 1992.

Marshall Portable Engine
A portable engine is a small steam engine, mounted on wheels or skids, it is not self-propelled and is towed to the work site by horses or bullocks, or even a traction engine. Portable engines were used mainly for driving agricultural machinery, such as threshing machines. This type of engine was introduced in 1872 and was produced in a range of sizes from 2 hp to 12 hp. This example was manufactured by Marshall Sons & Co circa 1910.

Crossley Engine
Stationary engines, frequently burning gas, were a vital part of 19th century industry, often being used to power independent electricity generators. The Manchester firm of Crossley, founded in Manchester by brothers Frank and William Crossley in 1867, was famous for its small engines. They later diversified into manufacture of buses and cars.

Wood Saw
One of the few remaining parts of the original Şirket-i Hayriye dockyard, this important and historic wood saw was made in Glasgow, Scotland, by the steel engineering firm of P & W MacLellan (1822 - 1979). It is still in fully functioning condition nearly 150 years later.

Compound Steam Engine
This interesting marine compound (i.e. the steam passes from one cylinder to another - lower pressure - cylinder in order to extract the maximum energy) steam engine was manufactured in Britain and dates from 1900. It was found in the engine room of the 1950s tugboat Tekirdağ.

HANDS-ON
Education is the primary duty of any responsible Museum, and the Rahmi M Koç Museum is proud of the fact that more than 60% of its visitors are school children. Of course, in a sense the entire collection is educational, but we have specifically arranged some exhibits and activities for children to try out and thereby be both entertained and informed. To find out more about our formal education activities at the Museum.

Cutaway Car
A fully detailed working cutaway of a modern FIAT Palio prepared and donated by Tofaş, the Koç-FIAT joint venture in Turkey. Not only can the detailed construction of the body work be seen, but also the operation of the engine and gearbox.

Bellanca Aeroplane
We are fortunate indeed to be able to exhibit this full-size real aircraft in this gallery. At weekends, a qualified expert shows visitors around the plane, and it is even possible to sit in the cockpit and try out the controls.

Scientific Experiments
The Hands-On gallery contains a series of specially-created demonstrations and experiments, designed to illustrate a variety of mechanical and physics principles. At weekends, a special teacher/instructor is on hand to show children around and explain the purpose and effect of each experiment.

Cutaway Domestic Goods
The cutaway car and lorries are joined by a fascinating array of working domestic goods, each piece sectioned or transparent with working mechanisms and co-ordinated lights to explain their function. Listen to a tape or CD player, watch a TV or computer, and understand the inner secrets of a dishwasher or vacuum cleaner!

SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS
The boundary between equipment built for scientific purposes, and that made for practical purposes, is not clear. Thus our collection includes such varied items as air pumps, sextants, and slide rules. One great museological advantage of old instruments is that it is usually possible to see how they work - unlike today's 'black boxes'. Even if the principle is obscure, for example in the Wimshurst machine illustrated below, the mechanical interaction of parts is usually relatively easy for the layman to follow.

Wimshurst Machine
This Wimshurst machine by Philip Harris & Co. of Birmingham and Dublin is an early form of electrostatic generator. When properly adjusted, this particular example can produce sparks up to an inch long, and literally make your hair stand on end. The Wimshurst Machine, invented by James Wimshurst (1832-1903), is an early electrostatic apparatus for generating high voltages. This example is a school demonstration model, capable of producing up to 30,000 volts.

Cary Pocket Microscope
William Cary (1759-1825) was a prominent maker of mathematical instruments. This small microscope was designed by one of his apprentices, Charles Gould, in London, England circa 1840

Fuller Cylindrical Slide Rule
Fuller cylindrical slide rule is a very long and hence more accurate slide rule, used circa 1940. It can be made more compact by wrapping the scales spirally round a cylinder.
 
Celestial Globe
This globe was made by Cafer İbn-i Ömer İbn Devletşah el-Kırmani between 1383 and 1384. It is one of the oldest globes known. There is a full set of constellation figures with about 1,025 stars indicated by points punched in small silver inserts on it. On loan from the Bosphorus University Kandilli Observatory.

Grand Orrery
A fine 19th Century Grand Orrery with ivory balls to represent the then known planets - as far as Neptune - together with their satellites and some of the major asteroids. The instrument is geared so that all the spheres rotate at the correct relative speeds.

Marine Chronometer
Two-day chronometer No. 3826 by David Stalker, of Leith, Scotland. In order to navigate at sea, one must know the true time as well as the angular measurement to sun or stars. The marine chronometer is especially designed to keep accurate time at sea, despite the stresses of motion and temperature change.

Strasbourg Turret Clock
This fine early movement comes from a turret in Strasbourg, France. This type of clock was usually installed in church towers where there was plenty of height for the weights to drop. They had no dial, but told the time by striking the hours on a bell.

MODELS & TOYS
Testament to our founder, Mr Rahmi M Koç's lifelong enthusiasm for models and miniatures, our superb collection of models and toys is mostly housed in the Lengerhane building - though a few may also be found in the relevant galleries of the new Hasköy Dockyard as well. Cars, lorries, ships, yachts, locomotives, and carriages are all strongly represented, as are fine, working models of stationary engines. We also have an extensive and important collection of toys through the ages, some of which can be seen in our replica Toyshop.

Model Locomotive Fire King
An historically important contemporary model made, signed and dated by Josiah Evans Haydock in 1841. He became a well-known locomotive engineer, and in 1874 designed the Bellerophon, still in service in Yorkshire, England and believed to be the oldest operating locomotive in the world. Kindly donated by Hochtief A.G. This important and historic model of a very early steam locomotive of 2-2-2 configuration was built by Josiah Evans when he was just 21 years old.

Marine Steam Engine
Perhaps the finest in our entire collection, this superb 1/10 scale model shows the main engine of the steamship Sussex Trader, built in 1947 by Sir James Laing & Sons of Sunderland. The engine represented was built at Wallsend by the North-East Marine Engineering Co., and is of the reversing, triple expansion reheater type.

Aveling & Porter Steamroller
Thomas Aveling & Richard Thomas Porter entered into partnership in 1862, and subsequently produced more steam engines than all the other British manufactures combined. This is a model of a 1920’s eight ton steamroller, used in road construction. It was built from original drawings. A fine scale model (built from the original works drawings) of a 1922 Aveling and Porter 'Dual-Reverse' Road Roller, used for smoothing the finish on asphalt roads. This particular type was known as The Coffeepot Roller because of the unusual shape of the boiler.

Model of the TS Savarona
The Savarona was built by the German firm of Blohm & Voss for an American heiress in 1931, and was later purchased by the Turkish government for the use of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk when he was advised to take a sea-cruise for his health. This 1/125 scale model was made by Mr. Süleyman Alper in 1993.

Model Triple Expansion Marine Engine
This superb 1/10 scale model shows the main engine of the British Steamship ‘Sussex Trader’, built in 1947 by Sir James Laing & Sons of Sunderland for the Trader Navigation Company. The engine itself was built at Wallsend by the North-East Marine Engineering Co. and was of the reversing, triple expansion reheater type.

Queen Mary
This naive model of the famous Cunard liner the SS Queen Mary is mounted on wheels so that it can be pulled by a child. More than 4' (1.3 meters) long, it is one of the largest metal toy boats ever made.

LOCATION SATELLITE MAP



WEB SITE : Rahmi M. Koç Technology Museum

MORE INFO & CONTACT
E-Mail : info@rmk-museum.org.tr
Phone : +90 212 369 6600
Fax : +90 212 369 6606

These scripts and photographs are registered under © Copyright 2017, respected writers and photographers from the internet. All Rights Reserved.

RAHMI M. KOÇ INDUSTRIAL MUSEUM / VEHICLE

Hasköy, Beyoğlu - Istanbul - Turkey

GPS : 41°02'30.0"N 28°56'55.0"E 8 41.041667, 28.948611

RMK Industrial Museum / Vehicles photo rmk_museum119.jpg

PHOTOGRAPHS ALBUM

The Rahmi M. Koç Industrial Museum is fortunate to be housed in two splendid, historical building complexes on the shores of the Golden Horn, at the heart of old Istanbul. These buildings are themselves icons of industrial archaeology, which makes it all the more appropriate that they now host our collection of industrial exhibits. The museum now has more than 11,000 square meters of galleries.

The Lengerhane
Now a Class II historical monument, this former Ottoman Navy anchor foundry was constructed on the 12th Century foundations of a Byzantine building during the reign of Sultan Ahmet III. (By the way, "lenger" means "anchor and chain", and "hane" means "house"). The building was subsequently restored in the reign of Sultan Selim III (1789 - 1807), before passing into the ownership of Ministry of Finance and finally, in the Republican era, the Turkish State Monopolies' Cibali Tobacco factory.

The Koç Foundation bought the first museum building in 1991, which was left derelict and seriously damaged after a roof fire in 1984 and the building was effectively abandoned until it was purchased by the Rahmi M Koç Museum and Culture Foundation in 1991.

The Hasköy Dockyard
This historic dockyard was founded in 1861 by the former Ottoman Maritime Company (Şirket-i Hayriye) for the maintenance and repair of its own ships. The yard initially comprised just two workshop buildings, and was gradually extended as needs and opportunities arose. A 45 m long cradle, powered by a steam capstan was constructed in 1884: later, in 1910, a second cradle was added and the capstan converted to electric power.

Some of the earliest ferry boats were constructed here, including public favourites such as the Kocataş and Sarıyer vessels laid down in 1938 and in service for nearly half a century. The dockyard went through many changes of State Ownership before ending up under the control of the Ministry of Communications In 1984. It was finally purchased by the Rahmi M Koç Museum and Culture Foundation in 1996.

The Restorations
The Rahmi M Koç Museum was founded in the Lengerhane building. The Lengerhane itself had been purchased in 1991 and was the subject of a thorough and sympathetic restoration by the firm of Garanti Koza. The original building was supplemented by an underground gallery reached by a long glazed ramp, and finally opened in December 1994. The first phase of the Museum rapidly outgrew itself, and in 1996 the Hasköy Dockyard, then just a ruin on the shores of the Golden Horn opposite the Lengerhane, was purchased. 14 derelict buildings plus the historic ship cradle and lathes were faithfully restored to their original condition, and the second phase opened to the public in July 2001.

The two buildings are on the same road, on opposite sides: the dockyard part of the complex is on the shores of the Golden Horn. A glass-sided ramp leads down to the basement exhibition area of the Lengerhane.

This exhibition section is divided into several subject, where you can enjoy a glimpse of the thousands of wonderful objects in our collection. On this page we show a few of the museum's favourites, arranged in the order in which they would be visited.

AVIATION
Who has not dreamed of flying like a bird? The concept is as old as the legend of Daedalus and Icarus, and came close to reality in the famous flight of Hezarfen Ahmet Çelebi from the Galata Tower to Üsküdar in the mid 17th Century. The 20th century Turkish aviation scene is represented by a wide variety of exhibits, from a tiny 2-seat Army trainer, to a classic DC-3 and the Mach2+ Lockheed Starfighter. We also have a salvaged B-24 fuselage, and a wide variety of smaller objects -including engines and models. Please click here for a list of major objects on display. There are aircraft (1941–1979), aviation parts collection, aircraft engines (1928–1979), large and small-scale aircraft models.

Douglas DC-3 "Dakota"
The most successful and well-loved airliner ever built, the DC-3 first flew in 1935, and became the mainstay of world civil aviation in the forties and fifties. Sixty years later, more than 400 remained in service. This particular aircraft was built in 1942 as a military C-47 Skytrain for the US Army Air Force, before being converted to DC-3 specification. This aircraft was a corporate transport for both Ford and General Motors before arriving in Turkey, where it performed charter work until being laid up in 1986.

F104 Starfighter
A 1974 Lockheed F-104 Starfighter, manufactured under licence by FIAT. This interceptor / bomber was used by the Turkish Air Force from 1974 to 1994. The short and exceptionally thin wings gave the aircraft high performance - a top speed in excess of Mach 2.2 - but also difficult handling characteristics and many were lost in training accidents over the years.

Bellanca 7 GCBC
This aircraft is based on the Aeronca 7, which first flew in 1946. Most were built for training, but aerobatic, crop spraying and reconnaissance models were also produced. This aircraft served with the Turkish Army Aviation School near Ankara, before being transferred to the Turkish Air Association in 1999.

B-24 Liberator "Hadley's Harem"
One of 178 Liberators that took off from Benghazi that bombed oil refineries in Ploesti, Romania on August 1st, 1943 - "Black Sunday". After bombing the target, and crippled by a German fighter, the B-24 tried to fly to the British Base at Cyprus but ended up ditching near Antalya. The front section was salvaged in 1995 and, partly restored, has been put on display with the help of Mr. Roy Newton, one of seven survivors of the crash.

Gipsy Major' Aero Engine
One of the most successful inter-war aero engines, the in-line, four-cylinder de Havilland Gipsy Major powered such notable aircraft as the Chipmunk and Magister trainers and the Dragon Rapide feeder airliner. This example was built in 1943, and came to the Museum via Yıldız Technical University.

De Havilland Vampire FB Mk 6
First flown in September 1943, the British De Havilland DH.100 Vampire was the second jet-engined aircraft of the Royal Air Force during WWII, although it did not see combat in that conflict. Originally named the “Spider Crab” because of its shape, it was the last example of composite wood and metal construction used in a high-performance military aircraft. It had straight wings and a single jet engine placed in an egg-shaped, aluminium –surfaced fuselage. To reduce losses caused by a long jet pipe, the designers used the distinctive tail with twin booms. This is a Mk 6 version, built under licence in 1952 by F. W. Emmen in Switzerland. It was used by a private pilot in the UK in the 1990’s, before being purchased and restored by the Rahmi M. Koç Museum in 2007.

Aeromodelling
A fine model, (one of many in the Museum) in this case of a German First World War fighter aircraft, the Fokker Dr. 1 Triplane (made famous by the exploits of fighter ace Baron Manfred von Richthofen, the 'Red Baron'). The model is deliberately unfinished, so that the structure can be seen.

RAIL TRANSPORT
What is it about railways that stirs the soul so - especially steam ones? Surely every child, at some stage, wanted to be an engine driver - or at least own a model railway. Well, the child in us all is amply catered for at the Museum, as our collection includes everything from a tiny HO gauge model railway to a mighty 76 ton Prussian G10 steam locomotive - by way of narrow gauge locomotives, electric tram, and the unique cable-operated Tünel carriage and its mighty steam engines. Please click here for a list of major objects on display.

Kadıköy - Moda Tram
A great favourite with children, especially on Saturdays when a real tram driver relives the heyday of the electric tramways. This much-loved tram was built by Siemens of Germany in October 29, 1934 and for served for over thirty years until 1966. In 1955 the line was handed over to the IETT (Istanbul Electricity, Trams and Trolleybuses).

Imperial Coach of Sultan Abdülaziz
This beautifully restored coach was built in 1866 at Saltley, Birmingham by the Metropolitan Carriage & Wagon Company for Sultan Abdül Aziz and presented to him as a gift from the Ottoman Railway company, which operated the Izmir-Aydın route. The Sultan used the carriage during his tour of Europe in 1867 which he met the Emperor Napoleon III of France, Queen Victoria, the King of Belgium, the King of Prussia, and finally the Austro-Hungarian Emperor. It was restored at the Museum's workshops in 1998.

Rail Car “La Littorina”
A railcar is a self-propelled railway vehicle designed to transport passengers. The term “railcar” is usually used in reference to a single coach with a driver’s cab and engine at both ends. The Littorina ALn 561903 on display is a rare and important item bearing the technical and aesthetic characteristics of the 1930’s and it is intact with all the original fittings and accessories.

Locomotive G10 and Tender
The first G10 Locomotive came into service in 1910, and was used until 1925. These locomotives were known as G10 and BR57 while they were working in Prussia and Germany. Forty nine of these locomotives were made by various manufacturers, and came to Turkey at different dates. The Prussian G10 design has an unusual 0-10-0 wheel layout. This example was manufactured by Borsig in 1912 or 1913 and after service with the KPEV (Royal Prussian Railways) arrived in Turkey as one of an eventual total of 49 'Class 55' locomotives: it is now numbered 55022. This impressive steam engine is 18.9 metres long and weighs 76 tonnes.

Narrow-Gauge Steam Locomotive
Built by the firm of Orenstein and Koppel of Berlin-Drewitz in 1930, this attractive and fully-working narrow gauge locomotive bears the serial number 12212, and was used in light industry until the late 1960s.

“Tunel” Carriage and Railway Winding Engine
The “Tunel” – a short, steep underground railway from Galata up to İstiklal Street - was opened for service on the 17th January 1875 and is the third oldest passenger underground, after London and New York. A 19th Century Passenger Carriage from the Tunnel Railway, raised and lowered by metal straps connected to the large twin cylinder Winding Engine built by Schnieder Creusot Iron Steel Works, France 1873. On loan from the İETT- Electric Tramway and Tunnel Establishment of İstanbul.

Henschel Steam Locomotive
Another German narrow-gauge locomotive, this example, serial number 15943, was built in 1918 by Henschel & Sohn of Cassel. It spent its latter years transporting military personnel from the centre of the Anatolian town of Eskişehir to and from the major Turkish Air Force base outside the town.

Horse Drawn Tram
A horse drawn tram made its first trip in Türkiye on September 3rd 1872, on the route Azapkapı - Ortaköy in İstanbul. The last examples had been replaced by the more efficient electric type by 1914. This particular tram worked on Route no. 14 between Beşiktaş and Karaköy, and is shown in its original Otoman era livery.

MARINE
Reflecting a special interest of our founder, the Museum has a huge range of Marine exhibits. Full size vessels like the steam tug Liman 2 or the characterful Turkish "Taka", a unique set of Bosphorus rowing boats, and a fine and extensive collection of models from rowing boats to ocean liners set the scene: these are complemented by hundreds of nautical artefacts from basic ships' equipment - anchors, telegraphs, binnacles, blocks & tackles - to superb and decorative navigation instruments like sextants, octants, hourglasses and bearing indicators.

Submarine "TCG Uluçalireis"
This vessel was originally built as the BALAO/TENCH-class US Navy Submarine USS THORNBACK (SS-418) at Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, USA in 1944: it is more than 93 m long, and displaces more than 2,400 tons. The boat saw service in the Second World War against the Japanese before being recommissioned and placed in the US Navy Reserve fleet in 1946. In the early 1950s USS THORNBACK was modernized to GUPPY II a specification and re-entered service in 1953. She was transferred to the Turkish Navy on 2nd July 1971, and immediately renamed TCG Uluçalireis with pennant number S-338. She then gave thirty years of valuable service to the Republic of Turkey before being finally transferred to the care of this Museum in 2001.

The Sailing Boat Which Blazed a Trail: ‘Kısmet’
In 1965, Sadun Boro, the first Turkish sailor to globe trot, with his wife Oda and their cat Miço who joined them from the Canary Islands, went on a tour around the world which took 2 years and 10 months in Kısmet, their 10.5 metre boat. They set sail from İstanbul on the 22nd August 1965, navigating a route through Gibraltar, Canary Islands, Barbados, Caribbean Islands, Pana-ma Channel, Galapagos Islands, Marquise Islands, Tuamotu Islands, Tahiti and Leeward Islands, Tonga Islands, Fiji Islands, New Hebridean Islands, New Guinea Island, Torres Strait, Timor Island, Indonesia, Singapore, Bengal Bay, Ceylon Island, Arabic Sea, Red Sea, Israel and arrived back in İstanbul on 15th June 1968. Their daughter Kısmet Deniz was born in 1969. In 1977, the Boro family set sail again in Kismet with their daughter for their second journey around the globe which would take two years and 3 months. Kindly Donated by Mr. Sadun Boro.

Tekel 15
The Turkish 'Taka' is a much-loved institution, and only a handful remain. Wooden hulled, sturdy, and built for local cargo duties, the colourful Taka was a familiar sight in the waters around Istanbul. This particular example worked for the State Liquor Monopoly, Tekel and was built in the Black Sea region in the immediate post-war years.

Tugboat "Liman II"
The İstanbul Port Company commissioned the Dutch firm Kreber to build the Tugboat Liman 2 in 1935. The completed vessel arrived in İstanbul in 1936. The tug was used as a general harbour tug, assisting larger ships into and out of the harbour at the Port of İstanbul continuously until 1988. In 1990, Mr. Rahmi M. Koç bought it with the intention of restoring it into a museum exhibit. Restoration began in April 1990 and was completed in July 1992, when she began her new lease of life. The Liman 2 is in fully working condition and gives regular tours of the Golden Horn in summer weekends.

Riva Aquarama
Surely one of the most beautiful and glamorous motorboats ever designed, the Riva Aquarama is one of the last wooden vessels from the famous Riva Shipyard in Italy. It is powered by twin Chris-Craft V8 engines of 230 hp each.

Lifeboat
The Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI) is responsible for sea rescue around the shores of Britain, and is famous for its innovative lifeboat designs. This "Liverpool Self-righting" class boat, Serial No. 541, was built by Groves and Guttridge on the Isle of Wight in 1951, and is powered by twin Perkins diesel engines. It is self-righting, due to its inbuilt buoyancy tanks at the bow and stern. It was part of a batch of 10 boats ordered, then canceled by the RNLI: the makers later completed the boats and sold them privately. This vessel was stationed at Kilyos, on the Black Sea coast near Istanbul, by the Turkish Maritime Lines.

Bosphorus Boat
Before the construction of the shore roads on both sides of the Bosphorus (and a very long time before the two bridges!) the only way to access palaces and mansions along the Bosphorus shores was by boat. This 6.8 meter Royal boat is particularly elegant, with its 3 pairs of oars and rich and colourful decoration.

Outboard Motor Collection
The Museum houses a remarkable collection of over 30 outboard motors, with such famous and evocative names as British Seagull, Johnson, Evinrude, Sea King and Champion - as well as rarer marques like Water Witch, Muncie, Lockwood and Elfo.

M/V Fenerbahçe Ferry Boat
The M/V Fenerbahçe is a ferry built in 1952, the same year as its sister ship the M/V Dolmabahçe, at the William Denny & Brothers shipyard in Dumbarton, Glasgow. The ship is one of the so-called “garden type” and went into service on 14th May 1953 as part of the Turkish Maritime Lines Fleet. For many years the ship plied the Sirkeci - Adalar - Yalova-Çınarcık line between İstanbul and the southern shore of the Marmara Sea, making its last farewell voyage on 22nd December 2008. The ship has two 1500 horsepower Sulzer diesel engines, twin screw with a maximum speed of 18 knots per hour. It is a handsome vessel, with its huge funnel and wooden fittings. The ferry is on loan from the İstanbul Metropolitan Municipality. Since 2009, it has served as a museum ship that is open to the public and is a venue for temporary exhibitions and educational events. Visitors can also enjoy the nostalgic atmosphere of the cafe.

1961 Amphicar
The amphibious Amphicar was designed in 1957-8 in Germany. It has a rear mounted Triumph Herald engine, driving the rear wheels or propellers, and is steered in water by turning the front wheels.

ROAD TRANSPORT
From 1753 horse carriage to 1976 Daimler Limousine: from tiny children's' bicycles to a huge Magirus-Deutz fire engine: this, our most popular department, illustrates the history and variety of road transport through the ages. We have more than 40 cars and commercial vehicles, 10 motorcycles, a fine collection of vintage bicycles, and two very spectacular steam traction engines.

1898 Malden Steam Car
At the turn of the century there were three competing forms of motive power for cars: petrol, electricity and steam. Each offered similar performance, and steam cars were very successful. This particular model was built in Malden, Massachusetts, USA in 1898 and gives a clear idea of how much the design of early cars owed to the horse carriage. This Malden car is one of the primal and most important parts of our collection, dates from 1898, and was obtained from the Zimmerman Museum in Pennsylvania.

1965 Rolls Royce Silver Cloud
Rolls- Royce, founded in 1904 by Charles Rolls and Henry Royce, is famous for producing cars     of exceptional quality, with perhaps the most respected brand name in motoring. The imposing Rolls - Royce Silver Cloud III was a refinement of the Cloud II, which was itself a V8 version of
the straight 6 - engined Cloud I. This fine example was the property of the famous record producer and founder of Atlantic records, the late Mr. Ahmet Ertegün. Kindly donated by The American - Turkish Society.

1917 Albion X-Ray Ambulance
The famous Scottish firm of Albion, formed in 1899, is well known for its commercial vehicles, especially lorries and buses. The A10 was one of the most common chassis used by the British Army in the First World War, and gained a fine reputation for strength and reliability, with almost 8,800 produced in total. This particular vehicle, ordered in January 1917 (with the body work and X-ray equipment fitted later in England), presumably saw service in the conflict between the Allied forces and the Ottoman Empire. The vehicle operated in Turkey for some years after the war before going into storage and being restored by this Museum's Workshop in 2001.

Ford Model T
The Museum is fortunate enough to have three examples of this famous car - a 1908 2 seater wagon, a 1918 roadster and a 1918 tourer and a 1926 TT Bus. The Model T was introduced in 1908, and more then 15 million cars were built up to 1927, using the then-new principle of the assembly line.

Delahaye Fire Engine
Emile Delahaye made his first two cars for the Paris-Marseilles Race in 1896. By 1904, the firm was concentrating on large, reliable cars and commercial vehicles. This Edwardian fire engine was built on a 43 hp car chassis, incorporates both water pump and ladder and originally operated in Paris. It was later privately owned, before being sold to a collector in England.

Fowler Traction Engine
John Fowler was born in Wiltshire, England in 1826 and was one of the pioneers of steam power in agriculture. After his early death in a riding accident in 1864, his firm carried on and became well known as a maker of mobile steam engines. This fine 19th century example was used as a 'road roller', making asphalt roads smooth after construction or repair.

Penny Farthing
Since the pedals of early bicycles were fixed to the front wheel, the only way to increase speed was to enlarge the size of the front wheel. Hence the Ordinary, or Penny Farthing introduced in England by James Starley in the early 1870’s. In 19th Century England, the penny and the farthing were two low-value coins - the farthing being ¼ of a penny, in both value and size. Hence the nickname of these amazing contraptions, with their huge, fixed-gear main wheel.

Magirus Fire Engine
The Magirus name is synonymous with high-quality fire fighting appliances around the world. This imposing example was produced in the Kühler Factory in Germany on September 27th, 1922. It saw service in the Municipality of İzmir who kindly donated the engine to the Museum.

LOCATION SATELLITE MAP



WEB SITE : Rahmi M. Koç Industrial Museum

MORE INFO & CONTACT
E-Mail : info@rmk-museum.org.tr
Phone : +90 212 369 6600
Fax : +90 212 369 6606

These scripts and photographs are registered under © Copyright 2017, respected writers and photographers from the internet. All Rights Reserved.

Saturday, July 1, 2017

FETHİYE (PAMMAKARISTOS) MUSEUM

Çarşamba, Fatih - Istanbul - Turkey

GPS : 41°01'45.0"N 28°56'47.0"E / 41.029167, 28.946389

Fethiye (Pammakaristos) Museum photo fethiye_museum149.jpg

PHOTOGRAPHS ALBUM

Today, the north church is still used as a mosque. The walls of the additional church are decorated with the best mosaics of the 14th century. It has been repaired during the period between 1938 and 1940 and became an organizational unit of Hagia Sophia Museum. The Museum is opened for visits in 2006.

Fethiye Museum is in Çarşamba vicinity of Fatih county of İstanbul. It is the church of Pammakaristos (very very happy) Monastery which had been built in East-Roman period. The church consists of two buildings and had been built on the remnants of the old church after the end of Latin domination in 1261. The north church is dedicated to Mary. It had been built between 1292 and 1294 by Michael Doukas Tarchaneiotes who was the nephew of Emperor Michael Palaiologos VIII. After a while Maria, the wife of Michael Doukas had built a small additional church (Parecclesion) in 1315 dedicated to Christ at the right of the north church. This additional church is a grave chapel containing the graves of Maria and Michael.

After the conquest, the monastery and the church were held by the Christians; and the patriarchate discharged from Havariyun Church moved here in 1455 and this place had been used for patriarchate until 1586. The building had been transformed into a church in Sultan Murad III period and denominated as Fethiye for the sake of Azerbaijan and Georgia military expeditions which had been carried out then.

The Istanbul Fethiye Museum and Mosque (Pammakaristos), which was built in the beginning of 12th century as a monastery church and later turned into a museum, will be restored by the Istanbul Provincial Administration. The administration, which has started work at the Istanbul Fethiye Museum and Mosque, plans to finish the projects inside the museum and start the restoration of the building by July 2012.

Under the republic, frescoes and mosaics inside were uncovered in 1955 and it was turned into a museum. The arch built by the Ottomans was replaced by columns from the original. In the 1960s, the mosque was once again opened for worship and is still in use today. The parakkleison, or side corridor section of the building, has remained as a museum. The northern part of the church is also still being used as a mosque. The walls of the additional church are ornamented with beautiful mosaics from the 14th century. After being repaired between 1938 and 1940, it was converted into a unit of the Hagia Sophia Museum.

Fethiye Mosque was originally built as a church in the Çarşamba neighborhood of the Fatih District by the Byzantine historian, Mihail Glabas Tarkaniotes, in the late 13the century. Pammakaristos Church, also known as the Church of Theotokos Pammakaristos, "All-Blessed Mother of God", in 1591 converted into a mosque and known as Fethiye Mosque (Turkish: Fethiye Camii, "mosque of the conquest") and today partly a museum, is one of the most famous Byzantine churches in Istanbul, Turkey.

The parekklesion, besides being one of the most important examples of Constantinople's Palaiologan architecture, and the last pre-Ottoman building to house the Ecumenical Patriarchate, also has the largest amount of Byzantine mosaics in Istanbul after the Hagia Sophia and Chora Church. The building is located in the Çarşamba neighbourhood within the district of Fatih inside the walled city of Istanbul.

Theotokos Pammakaristos overlooks the Golden Horn. According to most scholars, the church was built between the eleventh and the twelfth centuries. Many historians and archaeologists believe that the original structure of the church can be attributed to Michael VII Ducas (1071-1078), others put its foundation in the Comnenian period. It has also been suggested by the Swiss scholar and Byzantinist Ernest Mamboury that the original building was erected in the 8th century.

A parekklesion (a side chapel) was added to the south side of the church in the early Palaiologan period, and dedicated to Christos ho Logos (Greek: Christ the Word). The small shrine was erected by Martha Glabas in memory of her late husband, the protostrator Michael Doukas Glabas Tarchaneiotes, a general of Andronikos II Palaiologos, shortly after the year 1310. An elegant dedicatory inscription to Christ, written by the poet Manuel Philes, runs along the parekklesion, both outside and inside it.

The main church was also renovated at the same time, as the study of the Templon has shown. Following the fall of Constantinople, the seat of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate was first moved to the Church of the Holy Apostles, and in 1456 to the Pammakaristos Church, which remained as the seat of the Patriarchate until 1587. Five years later, the Ottoman Sultan Murad III converted the church into a mosque and renamed it in honor of his Fetih (Conquest) of Georgia and Azerbaijan, hence the name Fethiye Camii.

After it was converted into a mosque, the building’s abscissa was destroyed and a domed interior, a mihrab, a niche for the mosque, and a madrasa surrounding the courtyard along with minarets on three sides were added to the structure. To accommodate the requirements of prayer, most of the interior walls were removed in order to create a larger inner space. The complex, which was neglected, has been restored in 1949 by the Byzantine Institute of America and Dumbarton Oaks, which brought it back to its pristine splendor.

While the main building remains a mosque, the parekklesion has since then been a museum. The transformation of the church into a mosque changed the original building greatly. The Comnenian building was a church with a main aisle and two deambulatoria, and had three apses, and a narthex to the west. The masonry was typical of the Comnenian period, and adopted the technique of the recessed brick.

In this technique, alternate coarses of brick are mounted behind the line of the wall, and are plunged in a mortar's bed, which can still be seen in the cistern underneath and in the church. The transformation of the church into a mosque changed the original building greatly. The arcades connecting the main aisle with the deambulatoria were removed and were replaced with broad archways to open up the nave.

The three apses were removed too. In their place toward the east a great domed room was built, obliquely with respect to the orientation of the building. On the other side, the parekklesion represents the most beautiful building of the late Byzantine period in Constantinople. It has the typical cross-in-square plan with five domes, but the proportion between vertical and horizontal dimensions is much bigger than usual (although not so big as in the contemporary Byzantine churches built in the Balkans).

Although the inner colored marble revetment largely disappeared, the shrine still contains the restored remains of a number of mosaic panels, which, while not as varied and well-preserved as those of the Chora Church, serve as another resource for understanding late Byzantine art.

A representation of the Pantocrator, surrounded by the prophets of the Old Testament (Moses, Jeremiah, Zephaniah, Micah, Joel, Zechariah, Obadiah, Habakkuk, Jonah, Malachi, Ezekiel, and Isaiah) is under the main dome. On the apse, Christ Hyperagathos is shown with Virgin Mary and St. John the Baptist. The Baptism of Christ survives intact to the right side of the dome.

Fethiye Mosque underwent repaires in 1845, and an elementary school was built on the site of madrasa in the beginning of the 20th century. The complex’s structural integrity was also compromised by  removing the outer wall of the forecourt. In addition, the mosque was later restored by the General Directorate of Religious Endowments between 1936 and 1938 and, after converting it into a museum, it was left under the administration of the Directorate of Museums.

It was said that the Fethiye Mosque had been left rugged in that period, and it was reconverted into a mosque in the 1960s and the parekklesion situated next to the building was restored by the Byzantine Institute of America. During that restoration period, the mosaics and frescos in the  parekklesion were revealed. The Comnenian building was a church with a main aisle and two deambulatoria, and had three apses, and a narthex to the west.

Mosaics

The former Byzantine Church of the Theotokos Pammakaristos - or "All Blessed Mother of God" - has been called Fethiye Mosque since its conversion into a mosque.  It is located in the northwest corner of the city of Istanbul. The original church was built during the Comnenian dynasty, probably during the reign of Alexios I. There was an inscription (now lost) in the main church mentioning a John Comnenus and his wife Anna (not Anna Dassalena), so the church has been dated to 1065.

The church was always an Imperial monastery and many members of the Palaiologan dynasty were buried in it. A parekklesion was added to the church by the Palaiologian Princess Maria Glabaina to the right side of the church in honor of her husband in the early fourteenth century. The uncovering of the mosaics was completed in 1962 and comprise 41 scenes. Some parts of the marble revetment of the chapel have survived and they are topped by a delightful marble frieze oramented in the champleve technique, which circles the building.

The frieze is inlaid with black pitch (which has faded to a dull blue-gray in most places) and a red substance. It shows vines, round medallions and heart-shapoed shields containing rampant red lions and other fanciful animals including paired birds. It is thought the lions are a family crest associated with the Glabas family. The chapel had an inlaid Cosmatesque pavement, a fragment of which is preserved in the northeast corner.

Fragments of a carved fourteenth century marble templon were found in the church, which are now in the Hagia Sophia Museum. Carved and gilded dome cornice of the PammakaristosThe marble cornice of the dome is carved with crosses and rosettes. It was painted blue and the raised carving was covered with red bole and gilded. The crosses were left white. Christ appears alone in the conch because the chapel was dedicated to Him.

Renants of an inscription were uncovered in gold letters on a blue backround which had been painted on the cornice which encircles the chapel. This incription was difficult to conserve because it was painted upon a single layer of thin gesso applied to the marble cornice; the ancient paint layer tended to flake off during restoration. It is in iambic trimeters. The verses, by Manuel Philes, are an invocation to God addressed to Christ the Word, for the repose of the soul of Maria's husband, the Protostrator Michael Glabas Tarchaniotes.

The poem continues on an exterior cornice of the north side of the facade of the chapel. Glabas died around 1304 and was buried in the parekklesion. After her husband's death Maria Glabaina took the veil and became a nun, taking the name of Martha. She did enter religious life at the Pammakaristos, which was a men's monastery, but at the Convent of the Virgin of the Sure Hope where her sister also took holy orders later.

After the fall of the City of Constantionople to the Ottoman Turks in the 1453 the great cathedral church of Constantinople and seat of the Orthodoxy, Hagia Sophia was seized and converted into a mosque. The Conqueror Mehmed II found the anti-Unionist monk Gennadios in his cell at the Pantokrator Monastery and, much to his surprize and shock, elevated him to the Patriarchal throne, presenting him personally with his pastoral staff.

After a short residence in Justinian's church of the Holy Apostles, in 1455 the Patriarch Gennadios was forced to surrender this cathedral and moved to the Pammakaristos.  The Sultan Mehmed II visited the church and sat in this chapel to converse with the Patriarch Gennadios, who must have lived in great fear and awe of him. In the insuing years relics, works of art, liturgical vessels and even the remains of former Emperors and Empresses of Byzantium were gathered together at the Pammakaristos as churches were closing or being demolished throughout the city.

In 1488 the Chief Treasurer of the Sultan, Iskander bey, who lived near the church, seized the portable treasures of the Pammakaristos and all the money left by the recently deceased Patriarch Symeon I to the church - a great fortune totalling 180,000 aspers. In 1518 the church was restored.  Structural problems with the dome required urgent repairs and money - 100,000 aspers - was raised from the Orthodox Hospodar of Wallachia for this purpose.

From the time of the conquest the Christians who remained in Constantinople were under constant threat. They remained a significant minority in the city - as high as 40% of the population - that was an important source of taxation and extortion by powerful officials of the Sultan's court. At the same time the churches that remained in Christian hands were under constant threat by Muslim religious zelots and they fell, one by one, converted into mosques.

In 1538 Turkish scholars decided that, since Constantinople had taken by assault, according to Islamic law no Christian churches should be allowed to remain in the city.  A firman was issued to that effect and the Patriarch Jeremias I got wind of the Sultan's degree through a secret source. The Patriarch prayed to the icon of the Virgin Pammakaristos (this mosaic icon still exists in the Fener today) in the church to deliver the Christians and their few remaining churches in the city from this looming disaster.

He then went to the Grand Vizier Tulfi Pasa for help. The Grand Vizier told the Patriarch to make the case to the Sultan than Constantine XI had actually capitulated to Sultan Mehmet II.  He was able to produce two elderly witnesses - 84 years after the fall - who had been in the siege of the city and were willing to testify under oath that they had seen the surrender with their own eyes.

The Sultan Süleyman accepted this testimony (one can imagine the bribes that must have been paid), cancelled the firman he had issued and created a new one guranteeing the inviolability of the Greek churches at Constantinople, and this firman was stored in the Savior chapel of the Pammakaristos. What was gained with so much effort was soon lost. In 1584, less than 50 years later, a new Sultan decided once more that all the Christian churches left in the city should be converted to mosques, but this step was - this time - prevented by the invention of the Aga of the Janissaries.

The illegitimate Patriarch Pachomios II removed from under the church dome of the Pammakaristos four columns of precious marble and a part of the marble revetment of the church and sent them as a present to his protector at court, a certain Mehmed ağa who was attached to the service of the Sultan's mother. In desperation he tried to sell the silver vessels and all the relics remaining in the church to the Venetians - all to no avail.

The church was seized by Sultan Murad III in 1587 and converted into a mosque to celebrate his conquest of Azerbaijan. It was taken away from the Christians on the pretext that the Pammakaristos had been given by Sultan Mehmed II on a personal basis, without any assuarnce that it would be passed on to his heirs on the Patriarchal throne, hence the property belonged to the Sultan to do as he pleased. Thereupon the Turks entered the premises and recited their prayers there. It followed that the Pammakaristos was confiscated in August 1587.
It should be noted that this period was one of religious intolerance for minorities in the West as well as in the Ottoman Empire.

The central sanctuary was structurally altered by the Turks. Thomas Matthews, in his book Byzantine Churches of Istanbul, writes about this: "The triple arcades which originally separated the square nave from the ambulatories on three sides were removed and broad pointed arches were substituted; the three apses were destroyed and in their place a domed square room was placed obliquely against the eastern end of the building; fenestration was revised and the walls and piers were hewn back or remade to provide maximum openness of space in the building. The end result makes the original design difficult to recognize or appreciate."

The Turks removed the two marble columns on the north side of the parakklesion and inserted a wide arch there. During the restoration of 1963 the arch was removed, the original struction here was restored in brick and columns cast in concrete that matched the appearance the original richly veined columns of Proconnesian marble that remained on the south side. The capitals of these columns were carved in the fourteenth century and were gilded on red bole with a blue ground (the columns of Hagia Sophia were also gilded in this same way in the eleventh) and much of this decoration still survives.

Two mosaics icons from the church, one of the Hodegetria and the other of John the Baptist, were removed from the church and survive. There was a great fire in June 1784 - in the resulting repairs the mosaics of the main church were scrapped down and those of the chapel were plastered over. However, the dome of the chapel was never concealed and was visable in the nineteeth century.

The decoration of the dome consists of a medaillon of the Pantokrator at the summit and of twelve prophets in the calotte around Him. This constitutes the most impressive iconographical unit in the nave.  The drum of the dome, pierced by twelve fairly large windows, provides no suitable surfaces for decoration; it was thus left with only a layer of plain gold ground which has largely disappeared. The pendentives have been stripped of their original decoration which probably consisted of the four Evangelists.

There is a close iconographical affinity with the corresponding figure in the south dome of the inner narthex of the Chora Church, now called the Kariye Mosque. The expression of the face here is rather more severe when compared with the more humanized Christs of the Palaeologan period. The composition of the Deesis in the apse consists of Christ - here called the "Most Benevolent" with the Theotokos on the left side of the bema and John the Baptist on the right.

To the general theme of the Deesis has been added four busts of archangels in the vault above them. They represent Michael, Gabriel, Raphael and Uriel. The image of Christ shows him extending His hand out in blessing. This iconographic type occured quite suddenly in the late eleventh century under the Emperor Michael IV and has been associated with his decoration of the Church of SS. Cosmas and Damian.

The epithet "Most Benevolent" has not been found on any other image of Christ and is not recorded in the Hermeneia of Dionysios of Fourna, a sixteenth century authority on icon painting. This Deesis image of Christ and its inscription appears to be unique and therefore was a specific choice by Maria. Note that the Virgin is standing on a jewelled footstool, setting her above John the Baptist who stands across the bema from her.

This image of John the Baptist is noted for the fact the feet remained in the underpaint with only the highlights set in white mosaic. The colors of the robes of the Pantokrator are a stunning, rich blue and are expertly modelled. The face is realistically portrayed and there is damage to one of the eyes. The parekklesion was dedicated to Our Savior. The mosaics cannot be firmed dated through historical sources, but must date from around 1310, so they are contemporary with those of the Chora Church.

LOCATION SATELLITE MAP



WEB SITE : Fethiye Mosque Museum

MORE INFO & CONTACT
E-Mail : ayasofyamuzesi@kultur.gov.tr
Phone : +90 212 635 1273 / +90 212 522 0989
Fax : +90 212 512 5474

These scripts and photographs are registered under © Copyright 2017, respected writers and photographers from the internet. All Rights Reserved.

ATATÜRK MUSEUM

Şişli - Istanbul - Turkey

GPS : 41°03'23.1"N 28°59'13.5"E / 41.056417, 28.987083

Ataturk Museum photo atamuseum_sisli115.jpg

PHOTOGRAPHS ALBUM

The Atatürk Museum is located on Halaskargazi Street in the Şişli district of Istanbul. A beautiful three storied building which was the residence of Atatürk after his return from the Syrian front. After undergoing restoration, it has become a significant museum where his photographs, personal collections, paintings, and a set of  historical documents belonging to the Turkish Reform are now on exhibit.

After returning from the Syrian front, Mustafa Kemal rented the house where he lived with his mother, Zubeyde Hanım, and his sister, Makbule. His mother and sister lived in the upper story, he lived on the middle floor of the house, and his aide-de-camp lived in the lower story. The house was built in 1908 and has witnessed many meetings realized by Mustafa Kemal and his friends during the invasion of Istanbul after World War I.

The house, in which Mustafa Kemal lived until May 16th, 1919 before he went to Samsun was bought by Tahsin Uzer in 1924, a former Governer of  Erzurum. Uzer placed a wall sign at the entrance door of the house explaining that this is where Mustafa Kemal once lived.

This historical house, which contains many unforgettable memories of Mustafa Kemal Paşa, was bought from Tahsin Uzer in 1928 by the Istanbul Municipality. It was then converted into a house displaying some of his clothes, personal belongings, paintins of notable individuals during the period, and documents that have moral value and which bear his signature.

The house was converted into a museum,named the Atatürk Revolution Museum, and was opened to visitors on June 15th, 1942, during which Lütfi Kırdar Kırdar was mayor of Istanbul. It was later repaired after the insurrection of 1960 by the initiation of Istanbul Mayor, Refik Tulga. However, a fire took place within the building in 1962 and the museum was partly damaged. A large-scale restoration on the historic building was completed on the 100th birthday of Atatürk.

After restoration works, which were completed in accordance with the architectural design of 1910, the museum was renamed the "Atatürk Museum” and was again opened to visitors on May 19, 1981. The museum was once again renovated in 1989. Since 1991 it has remained opened entertaing both domestic and foreign visitors.

House where Atatürk lived and worked before the War of Independence during his stay in Istanbul between 1918 and 1919, originally was built in 1908 and restored by the Municipality of Istanbul in 1943, opening to the public in 1981. Top floor of this building was reserved to His mother Zübeyde Hanım and His sister Makbule, meanwhile Atatürk used middle floor for himself and lower floor for His loyal officer.

On display are photographs of Atatürk from his birth until his death, as well as some of his clothes, personal belongings and paintings.

Istanbul Atatürk Museum is located in Şişli district of Istanbul (20-30 minutes drive from Taksim square), now serves as the Atatürk Museum and displays his personal effects. A beautiful three storied building was residence for Atatürk and his mother after his return from the Syrian front.

Earlier years in this museum this Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and friends held the secret meetings and conferences before he left Istanbul for Samsun, where he started the war of Independence.

LOCATION SATELLITE MAP



WEB SITE : Atatürk Museum

MORE INFO & CONTACT
Phone : +90 212 233 4723
Fax : +90 212 259 1582
E-Mail : kutuphanemuzeler@ibb.gov.tr

These scripts and photographs are registered under © Copyright 2017, respected writers and photographers from the internet. All Rights Reserved.

KONT SZCHENYI FIRE BRIGADE MUSEUM

Beşiktaş - Istanbul - Turkey

GPS : 41°02'38.0"N 29°00'42.1"E / 41.043883, 29.011683

Kont Szchenyi Fire Brigade Museum photo firebrigade_museum117.jpg

PHOTOGRAPHS ALBUM

The Fire Department Museum bears witness to the history of Turkish firefighting and rescue. The museum tells the visitors how the firefighters of the Istanbul city have struggled against fires for three centuries. It houses former water-pumping tools, steam-operated water-pumpers and horse-drawn water pumping tools. Also in the Fire Department Museum, you can find “Ottoman street firefighters” models and scene, military firefighters’ uniforms, fire axes, leather buckets, various paintings, and photographs about some fires in the city. It is located in the Beşiktaş District of the Istanbul City.

Istanbul Fire Brigade Museum presents a chronological history of fire fighting in Istanbul starting with the water pumpers (Tulumbaci in Turkish) of Ottoman times. All kinds of fire brigade equipments, from the first motorized fire engines to firemen’s clothing and tools, are displayed. Current building of museum was opened in 1992, after collecting and repairing many objects within the main Fire Brigade headquarters in Fatih district.

Fire Brigade is indispensable department of Ottoman Empire from 18th century’s first quarter to establishment of the Republic. Fire Brigade Museum exhibits the adventure of fire fighting in Istanbul since four centuries.

Istanbul Fire Brigade Museum Collection contains, Davud-u Hakiki’s Pump with pergola from 1714, district pumps, steam pumps and car pumps from 1800’s and also mise en scene of distric pumps, firefighters uniforms of military period, candles,limelight, fireman's axes, fabric cistern,l eather buckets, various paintings, photographs of some major fires events that occurred in Istanbul are being presented to visitors in IMM Fire Brigade Museum. Enterance is free.

The Fire Brigade was an indispensable department of the Ottoman Empire from the 18th century’s first quarter to establishment of the Republic. Sultan Abdülaziz invited Hungarian Count Odön Szechenyi to Istanbul to establish a proper fire brigade after the big fire event occurred in 1871. As a reward for his work Odön Szechenyi was bestowed with the title “Pasha” in 1880.

The museum was originally opened in 1932, but re-opened in its present building in 1992, after many objects were collected and repaired within the main Fire Brigade headquarters in Fatih district. The name of Odön Szechenyi was given to museum in 1998.

Sárvár-felsővidéki gróf Széchenyi Ödön (Edmond) came into this world on December 14, 1839, in Pozsony (now Bratislava).  In his early 20’s, there were some destructive fires at Nagycenk, the family estate, and later at nearby Fertőszentmiklós.  These two tragic events heavily influenced Ödön’s choice of career.

In 1862, he participated at the London world exhibit as fire commissioner, where he had a chance to study organized firefighting.  He met the world’s leading experts of state-of-the-art fire protection and learned the basic rules of “regulating nature”.  He also acquired some theoretical information and returned from his trip with a rowboat loaded with specialized textbooks.  From here on he spent most of his energy organizing the domestic fire department system. Based upon his academic knowledge as well as practical experiences from his hometown, he wrote the first Hungarian fire-fighting textbook.

At his own expense, he ordered hoses and other fire extinguishing equipment from England.  For a while he was active as commander of the City of Pest’s volunteer fire department and, in the late 1860’s, had the lion’s share in organizing the National Fire Protection Commission.

News of all this became widespread through the Western world and reached the Turkish Sultan Abdülaziz, who recognized the Hungarian fire fighting organization as the most modern and best organized in Europe.  With tightly built neighborhoods, narrow alleys and a great shortage of water, Constantinople had a history of fire devastation and was prone to be devoured by extensive fires.  The Sultan therefore asked Count Széchenyi Ödön to organize that city’s fire protection system.

Count Ödön accepted this important assignment.  (What a noble way to reciprocate the 150-year Turkish occupation!…) He had to overcome numerous huge problems of prejudice, organization, finances. Yet in the first year of his commission, he counteracted 17 fires that would have caused enormous damage before.    For his excellent work, he was awarded the rank of colonel in 1877, then that of field marshal and, ultimately, he was conferred the title of pasha.

All this devoted, passionate involvement that he took upon himself resulted in his staying in Constantinople.  However, that took a toll on his personal life. Pasha Széchenyi served half a century in Turkey, under four successive sultans. He won the confidence of all of them.  He was given the highest decorations in honor of his humble and effective service..  Yet, he preserved his Hungarian citizenship until his death!

He had married Almay Irma, a commoner, in 1864 and together they had three children (András, 1865; Vanda, 1870 and Olga, 1873).  His wife being reluctant to move to Turkey with him, Ödön left by himself, visited his family only occasionally, securing his children’s Hungarian education. After his alienated wife’s death in 1891, he married Eulalia Christopulos in 1892, legitimizing their liaison of several years.  They had four children together, György, Ilona, Gusztáv and Bálint.

Besides his unparalleled role in international firefighting, many domestic foundations, innovations and establishments could be credited to him, most visible of which are the Budavári Sikló (funicular connecting the Danube river bank with the Castle district), and the Fogaskerekű Vasút (Cog-wheel Railway, running from the Városmajor to the Széchenyi Mountain, in Buda).

While gróf Széchenyi Ödön, known as the “fire pasha”, was highly honored and decorated in Turkey and throughout Europe, he was virtually unrecognized in Hungary, possibly due to his tangled family affairs that were severely frowned upon by the Monarchy’s aristocracy.

He died in Turkey, in the 83rd year of his life, on March 24, 1922.  At his request, his remains were put to rest in Constantinople, in the Catholic section of the Feriköy Christian cemetery, on the European side of Istanbul.

This museum presents a chronological history of fire fighting in Istanbul starting with the water pumpers (tulumbacı in Turkish) of Ottoman times. All kinds of fire brigade equipment, from the first motorized fire engines to firemen’s clothing and tools, are displayed.

LOCATION SATELLITE MAP



WEB SITE : Fire Brigade Museums

MORE INFO & CONTACT
Tel : +90 212 259 9124
Fax : +90 212 259 1582
E-Mail : kutuphanemuzeler@ibb.gov.tr

These scripts and photographs are registered under © Copyright 2017, respected writers and photographers from the internet. All Rights Reserved.

Friday, June 30, 2017

GREAT PALACE MOSAICS MUSEUM

Sultanahmet, Fatih - İstanbul - Turkey

GPS : 41°00'15.2"N 28°58'38.8"E / 41.004231, 28.977445

Great Palace Mosaic Museum photo mosaic_museum105.jpg

PHOTOGRAPHS ALBUM

The Museum of Great Palace Mosaics is located in Arasta Bazaar within the Sultanahmet Mosque compound. The museum constituted in such a way that containing the mosaic pavement partially intact in the northeast section of the arcaded yard of the Great Palace of East-Roman period is an organizational unit of Hagia Sophia Museum.

Mosaics exhibited in the Museum of Great Palace Mosaics which have been dated to AD 450-550 are magnificent in terms of both art and wealth of portrayal scenes. Only a part of 180 m2 of the mosaic area which had been prepared by numerous master artists led by the prominent masters of the day is revealed. The average dimension of mosaic stones is 5 mm and they consist of limestone, earthenware and colored stones.

Portrayals are "Opus vermiculatum" and placed in between marble pieces. As for the white marble sections on the background, "fish scale technique" has been applied. In addition, the surroundings of the portrayals forming the mosaic are bordered by contours.

There are no religious themes in mosaics. Instead, daily life, nature and mythology are examined. Some of these scenes are lizard eating gryphon, elephant and lion fight, lactation of mare, goose herding children, goat milking man, a child feeding his donkey, a young girl carrying a pot, apple eating bears, and fight of hunter and tiger. The Museum of Great Palace Mosaics had been bonded to Archeology Museums of İstanbul in 1953, while it has been is an organizational unit of the directorate of Hagia Sophia Museum.

The Mosaic Museum of Istanbul hosts a collection of archeological discovers at the Great Palace of Constantinople. The mosaics were first  discovered in 1933, during some excavations that took place on a site identified as the floor of a peristyle courtyard of the Great Palace. (under what is now the Arasta Bazaar). Later in the 1950's other mosaics were found and the museum was built near the site.

The museum hosts the mosaics used to decorate the pavement of a peristyle court, dating possibly to the reign of Byzantine emperor Justinian I (r. 527-565). It was uncovered by British archaeologists from the University of St Andrews in Scotland during extensive excavations at the Arasta Bazaar in Sultan Ahmet Square in 1935-1938 and 1951-1954. The museum has informative panels documenting the floor's history, rescue and renovation.

The area formed part of the south-western Great Palace, and the excavations discovered a large peristyle courtyard, with a surface of 1872 m2, entirely decorated with mosaics. It was at this point that the Austrian Academy of Sciences, supervised by Prof. Dr. Werner Jobst, undertook to study and preserve the famous palace mosaic and to carry out additional archeological examinations (1983-1997) within the scope of a cooperative project with the Directorate General of Monuments and Museums in Turkey.

When archaeologists from the University of Ankara and the University of St Andrews (Scotland) excavated around the Arasta Bazaar at the rear of the Blue Mosque in the 1930s and 1950s, they uncovered a stunning mosaic pavement featuring hunting and mythological scenes. Dating from early Byzantine times, it was restored from 1983 to 1997 and is now preserved in this museum. Thought to have been added by Justinian to the Great Palace of Byzantium, the pavement is estimated to have measured from 3500 to 4000 sq m in its original form.

The 250 sq m that is preserved here is the largest discovered remnant - the rest has been destroyed or remains buried underneath the Blue Mosque and surrounding shops and hotels. The pavement is filled with bucolic imagery and has a gorgeous ribbon border with heart-shaped leaves. In the westernmost room is the most colourful and dramatic picture, that of two men in leggings carrying spears and holding off a raging tiger.

This museum is situated just off Sultanahmet Square and houses the mosaics uncovered from the remains of the Great Palace of Constantinople, which was originally built in 328 as a counterpart for the Palatine Palace in Rome and re-done during the reign of Byzantine emperor Justinian I in around 550 (just before the incredible achievement that was the building of the Hagia Sophia). The museum is situated near the palace itself, and the mosaics, which formed the peristyle courtyard, were unearthed beside the Arasta Bazaar in the 1930s and 1950s.

The mosaics are reproduced in the museum in the form that they would have appeared in the courtyard. They are made up of an estimated 80 million tesserae of colored glass, brick, limestone, and semi-precious stone. The pictures depicted on the mosaics are mostly of everyday Byzantine life (hunters spearing a tiger, monkeys catching birds, children herding ducks, and a man milking a goat, among other things).

Most interestingly, there is a scene depicting children playing with a hoop, wearing green and blue colors that are thought to evoke the famous “Greens and Blues” of the racing chariot teams at the Hippodrome. Eastern Roman mosaics dating back a millennium-and-a-half are set to get their first touch-up in almost three decades at the Istanbul Restoration and Conservation Laboratory to give them a more modern look.

“As part of a new project, there are plans for a new display at the [Great Palace Mosaic] Museum. As such, the mosaics should be restored again because the former restoration was carried out with the methods of the 1950s,” said Istanbul Restoration and Conservation Laboratory Director Ali Osman Avşar. The mosaics were unearthed from the ground of the Great Palace in 1932. Hayrullah Cengiz, director of the Hagia Sophia Museum, which is affiliated with the Great Palace Mosaics Museum, said the palace mosaics were the only artifacts that had been unearthed from the area and taken under protection.

“As the years have passed, we see that the museum building has become old. We have prepared a building survey and restoration project for the museum. It has been approved by the relevant institutes. When the project is finished, it will be a better museum than its current situation,” Cengiz said. Every year, nearly 100,000 tourists visit the museum, which was opened in 1987, Cengiz said, noting that the facility would be closed to visits during the restoration process.

Avşar said the mosaics were unearthed during excavations in 1930s and moved to the museum for protection in the 1950s. Later on, in accordance with a protocol signed with the Austrian Sciences Academy, the mosaics were restored, Avşar added.

He said meticulous work was very important in the mosaic restoration. “One of the problems we will have here is that cement mortar was used in the restoration of the mosaics in the 1950s. Today, cement is a material that we don’t want to use because it contains soluble salts that damage tesserae. We will analyze the soluble salts to see if cement mortar damaged the tesserae or not. Then we will decide on the conservation method. But most probably, these salts have gone over the many years. Later on, we will work on aesthetic interventions.”

Avşar said they would also clean the mosaic panels and that the mosaic pieces would be examined one by one after cleaning work, with teams set to reinforce damaged pieces. Avşar said another important stage of the project was documentation. Noting that the purpose of conservation was to protect the artifacts, the laboratory director said: “Conservation neither changes an artifact’s historical identity nor its aesthetics. The museum is home to over 100 mosaic pieces. This is why the conservation work may take 1.5-2 years.”

Biggest landscape portraits that still survive. The mosaics, which date back to 450-550 A.D. and are on display at the Arasta Bazaar in the Sultanahmet Mosque complex, are very important in terms of the richness of their artistic scenes.

The mosaics, which were created by leading masters of the time for the ground of the Great Palace, were unearthed during excavations between 1932 and 1935. The mosaics depict daily life, nature and mythology. The mosaics at the Great Palace Mosaics Museum have 90 different themes depicting 150 human and animal figures. On a field of 250 square meters, the mosaics are believed to be the biggest ones to survive since Late Antiquity.

The Great Palace Mosaics Museum opened in 1953 as a unit affiliated with the Istanbul Archaeology Museum. Since 1979, the museum has operated under the auspices of the Hagia Sophia Museum. As part of a contract between the General Directorate of Monuments and Museums and the Austrian Sciences Academy, restoration and conservation works were also conducted on the mosaics in the 1980s.

In ancient times, the palatial hill from the Sea of Marmara to the Hippodrome. The palatial district extended from Hagia Sophia and the Hippodrome to the cost line, where the sea wall acted as a mighty boundary of great military value. Its basic layout, first determined by Emperor Constantine, soon housed a collection of state buildings with courtvards, throne rooms and auidience rooms, churces and chappels gardens and fountains, libraries, assembly buildings, thermal baths and stadiums.

Throughout the centuries palaces decayed due to fires, earthquakes, and other reasons. Finally, whatever remained was covered by earth. British scientists from the University of St. Andrews in Edinburg made extensive excavations at the Arasta Bazaar in Sultan Ahmet square (1935-38) and (1951-54). This partly opened up one of the south-western buildings, so called “Great Palace”. The Great Palace had got a big courtyart with perisyle (1872 m2).

It was decorated with mosaics. It was at this point that the Austrian Academy of Sciences undertook to rescue, (Supervised by Prof. Dr. Werner Jobst) study and preserve the famous palace mosaic and to carry out additional archaeological examinations (1983-1997) within the scape of a cooperation project with the Directorate General of Monuments and Museums in Turkey. When the peristylle of The Great Palace was redone under Justinian I. (527-565), The Great Palace mosaic was the largest and the most beautiful landscape in antiqity (the 6th century A.D).

No where in the world of late antiquity can we find a building with a tessellated pavement of similar size and perfection of workmanship. It was probably made by an imperial workshop that surely has employed the best craftmen gathered from all corners of the Empire, guided by a master artist. It is this circumstance which makes it difficult to compare the piece with creations, and thus to date it by means of typological and stilistic methods.Composing the tessalated pavement, with its many coloured lime, terracotta and glass cubes of 5 mm.

One square metre of floor space consumed about 40.000 cubes, which makes for 80.000.000 tesserae for entire area. The mosaic was brought to light only in fragments and sections, which together make-up about one seventieth of the original expance, but these suffice to convice us that it is one of the most magnificent compositions known to us from antique mosaic art.

In The Great Palace Mosaic the main field of the composition was 6 metres in width. On either side of its edge it is accompained by an exquisitely arranged border of folliage each 1.50 metres wide, sufficient to cover the entire hall 9 metres deep with a tesselleted pavement. The frame is dominated by a highly naturalistic acantus scroll. Acantus are filled with masked heads, exotic fruit and animals.The frame which symbolize a garden of eden. After frame when looking at the scenes we find a movement from left to right in the notheastern hall.

The pictures describe open-air scenes, the life of herdsmen the labour of peasants and the prowess of huntsmen. Scenes of children playing with Wilde beast and grazing animals alternate with mythological motifs animal fables and fabulous creatures from exotic countries, animals, hunting, games, bucolic scenes nature and myths are the leading themes in the succession of pictures. On surviving parts of the mosaic we still count 90 different themes populated by some 150 human and animal figures.

LOCATION SATELLITE MAP



WEB SITE : The Museum of Great Palace Mosaics

MORE INFO & CONTACT
E-Mail : ayasofyamuzesi@kultur.gov.tr
Phone : +90 212 518 1205
Fax : +90 212 512 5474

These scripts and photographs are registered under © Copyright 2017, respected writers and photographers from the internet. All Rights Reserved.