Tuesday, May 22, 2018

FİRUZ AĞA MOSQUE

Sultanahmet, Fatih, İstanbul - Turkey

GPS : 41°00'28.4"N 28°58'34.6"E / 41.007889, 28.976278



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The mosque is located in the historical center of the city, on the Divanyolu Street, close to other prominent historical landmarks. Firuzaga mosque happens to be one of the famous mosques of Istanbul of the Ottoman era. Firuz Ağa Camii is located on Divanyolu, the main street overshadowed by the long queue of trees.

The Firuz Ağa Mosque is an old Ottoman mosque in the Fatih district of Istanbul, Turkey. It was built by Firuz Ağa, the head treasurer of Sultan Beyazıt II (1447- 1512) in 1491. The marble sarcophagus of Firuz Ağa is located in the mosque complex.

Mosque
The Firuzaga Mosque has an interesting history to boast about. The Sultan Ahmet used to go for various expeditions accompanies by the treasurer of the Ottoman Palace. One of the main duties of the treasurer was placing a prayer rug, known as seccade, to be placed before the beginning of the Friday prayer. Apart from this, the treasurer would always sit on the ground, before the Sultan, to lay his forhead there and ensure that there was no danger to the life of the Sultan.

Sultan Beyazid II, the son of Sultan Mehmet II, was ascended to the throne after the death of his father. It was only after a gap of 10 long years that Firuz Agha, the treasurer of the period, built a mosque at the entry point of the famous street of the Byzantine Empire. The treasurer died in 1512 and his tomb, having engravings of rose figures on the marble, is located in the yard of the Firuzaga Mosque.

The Firuzaga Mosque, with a square design of 13.5 m by 13.5 m, is built in the Bursa style and has a dome with eight sides. According to a famous story, this mosque was built at a place which was once a famous spot of horse races being watched by the Roman emperors.

This small mosque, located on the Atmeydanı in Sultanahmet was commissoned by Firuz Ağa, the head treasure of II. Bayazıd in 1491. With its dome set on a actagonal rim, it shows the typical Bursa style. The aches as well as connecting stairs. The spectacular enterance throgh the outer courtyard opens directly on the tram line today.

It has a square plan with a dome and reflects Bursa style. It was built from cut stone and placed on an octagonal tambour. Windows composed of distichous with two and the inscription belongs to Şeyh Hamdullah Efendi. The arcade porches of the mosque are not in contrast with the Classical Ottoman Architecture.

Tomb
The tomb of Firuz Ağa, builder of the mosque, was pulled down by the command of Keçecizade Fuad Paşa, (grand vizier) in the middle of the 19th century during the road widening construction. Today, the marble sarcophagus of Firuz Ağa is present in front of the wall where the minaret is located. Additionally, the cemetery of the mosque has completely been removed during road-widening construction.

Minaret
Unlike other mosques, Firuzağa Mosque has the minaret placed to the left side of the wall while usually, minarets had to be on the right side on the wall. Although, the exact reason behind the minaret being placed on the left is still unknown, there are a number of stories relating different reasons for this.

This mosque was built during the first few years after Sultan Mehmet II conquered Constantinople. The mosque was located in the neighborhood of Sultanahmet which was considered to be the heart of Constantinople. Nearly 80 percent population living in the area was Greeks. The reason why the minaret of the mosque was built on the left of the wall was that the majority of Greek population living near the mosque should not get disturbed with sound of the prayer.

However, according to another account, the Firuzağa Mosque had been built to excel the first mosque built in Mecca by the Muslims. The common tradition during the 14th century and a few years later was that minarets should be located on the left side of the mosques. It was only during some what later that the tradition to place the minarets on the right side became common.

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YILDIZ HAMİDİYE MOSQUE

Yıldız, Beşiktaş - Istanbul - Turkey

GPS : 41°02'59.0"N 29°00'36.0"E / 41.049722, 29.010000



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Yıldız Mosque is on the Yıldız Palace road leading off Barbaros Boulevard in Beşiktaş. The Yıldız Hamidiye Mosque, also called the Yıldız Mosque, is an Ottoman imperial mosque located in Yıldız neighbourhood of Beşiktaş district in Istanbul, Turkey, on the way to Yıldız Palace. The mosque was commissioned by the Ottoman Sultan Abdülhamid II, and constructed between 1884 and 1886.

The mosque was built on a rectangular plan and has one minaret. The architecture of the mosque is a combination of Neo-Gothic style and classical Ottoman motifs. A bronze colonnade erected by Sultan Abdülhamid II in Marjeh Square of Damascus, Syria bears a replica statue of the Yıldız Mosque on top.

The principal name of the mosque is Hamidiye Mosque, built in 1885 by Sultan Abdülhamid II. (1842 - 1918). It is rather far from the traditional Ottoman architectural style in its architectural scheme and decorative elements. It is one of the world's first and rare Gothic mosques. The mosque is an unrivalled example of late Ottoman mosque architecture. It is said that Sultan Abdülhamid II designed the mosque himself.

The mosque was been built after Sultan Abdülhamid II was established in the Yıldız Palace. Both the Hünkar Köşkü (royal residence) and the Harim (sanctum sanctorum) of the mosque on square plan provide a more full visual completeness. Moreover, both the small and high dome of the mosque were erected above a polygonal tambour, which has 16 windows. Neo-Gothic style windows and muqarnas (decorative) lines add a different complexion on the tambour of the mosque.

Gold leaf and the unprecedented star-shaped engravments on the blue decorations / adornments of the dome are beautiful examples of the rich engraving of the mosque. Additionally, the minaret of the structure has a decorated sherefe (minaret balcony), and the body of the minaret is fluted upward. The minaret has a single gallery and is decorated with stone carvings.

The interior ornamentation is very rich, extravagant and sophisticated. There are rooms on the left and right which are reached by stairs. The room on the right, the Sufera room with walls covered with 18 carat gold, had been designated for ambassadors and other high-ranking foreign officials. The room on the left, on the other hand, was the Hünkar pew, where the Sultan would pray in private. The Hünkar pew had an oil-painted ceiling.

The dome sits on four thick iron columns and has 16 windows. The eaves of the dome are decorated with engraved stars. The inside of the dome is also ornate. Additionally, the minaret of the structure has a decorated sherefe (minaret balcony), and the body of the minaret is fluted upward. There are verses from the Quran decorate four sides of the mosque. The panels on the walls are made of ebony with pearl engravings. Borders with inscriptions of chapters from the Koran encircle the interior walls.

There are 17 windows in the mosque and verses from the Quran decorate four sides of the mosque. The panels on the walls are made of ebony with pearl engravings. Borders with inscriptions of chapters from the Koran encircle the interior walls.

The mosque was been built after Sultan Abdülhamid II was established in the Yıldız Palace. Both the Hünkar Köşkü (royal residence) and the Harim (sanctum sanctorum) of the mosque on square plan provide a more full visual completeness. Moreover, both the small and high dome of the mosque were erected above a polygonal tambour, which has 16 windows.

Neo-Gothic style windows and muqarnas (decorative) lines add a different complexion on the tambour of the mosque. Gold leaf and the unprecedented star-shaped engravments on the blue decorations/adornments of the dome are beautiful examples of the rich engraving of the mosque.

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ŞEBSEFA HATUN MOSQUE

Zeyrek, Fatih - İstanbul - Turkey

GPS : 41°01'10.0"N 28°57'31.6"E / 41.019444, 28.958778



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The Şebsefa Hatun Mosque, built in 1787, is situated in the Zeyrek neighborhood of the Fatih District, as well as along Atatürk Boulevard. Its construction was commissioned by Fatma Şebsefa Hatun, a wife of Sultan Abdulhamid I (1725 -1789). She had it built in commemoration of her son.

When it was brought together with the Sıbyan Mektebi (an Ottoman elementary-primary school), the mosque’s fountains were removed from their former sites during the road broadening works. The primary school, which is now an imam lodge, dates from 1805, according to the records, was a coeducational school. It is evident that the building was clearly redesigned as a complex.

It is of brick and stone; the porch has an upper storey with a cradle-vault and inside there is a sort of narthex also of two storeys, covered with three small domes. These upper storeys form a deep and attractive gallery overlooking the central area of the mosque, which is covered by a high dome resting on the walls. To the north of the mosque is a long mektep with a pretty cradle vaulted roof.

The wall is composed solely of stone and brick, and the mosque has a Baroque architectural style. The ceiling of the Harim (sanctum sanctorum) is mainly composed of a dome standing on a tambour with 16 windows. The dome is supported by four smaller domes located at the corners of the structure. There are five marble columns in the last prayer section. The interior of the mosque is lit by 29 windows.

The minaret with a sherefe (minaret balcony) located on the left side of the mosque is made of cut stone. Furthermore, the inscription on the portal gate reveals a poem in the epigraph written by the Şeyhülislam of that period, the fifth Yahya Tevfik.

Şebsefa Hatun, the builder of the mosque, was buried in the graveyard of the Mosque. The mosque is now nestled below road level, after the completion of the later road construction.

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